ÖğeIntercontinental and regional evaluation of terrorism and its economic effects(Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019) Çetin, Işin; Yıldırır Keser, Hilal; Ay, SemaTerrorism dates back to the uprising against the Roman Empire in first century BC and the term entered Western literature during the eighteenth century. Conceptually, it has emerged as a security problem in a national and international context. However, terrorism is not only a security problem but also has significance on political, social, cultural, psychological, and especially economical aspects. A weak economic structure of a country makes it easier for terrorist organizations to manipulate its society in a certain direction. Issues such as economic growth, foreign trade, employment, foreign investments, and public expenditures are first affected by terror incidents, and thereafter are known to have medium- and long-term effects. In general, it is observed that developed countries are less affected from terror incidents than developing countries. In this context, in this study, regional assessments will be made using the following indicators: the Global Terror Index (GTI), gross domestic product (GDP), export, foreign investments, and public expenditure. Regional and intercontinental assessments will be implemented using spatial econometric techniques. The GeoDa package program will assess the diversity in terrorism between continents. Our main hypothesis is that terrorism's economic effect is more in developing countries and the Middle East than among other developed countries. The other aim of the study is to determine which terrorism is more effective and which economic indicator is more affected and gives the best result about effects of the terrorism on the countries and continents. This study predominantly tries to examine whether terror incidents are most influential on the economies in the Middle East region. ÖğeTransforming planning education: Practicing Collaborative Governance and Experiential Learning in a Graduate Level Planning Studio(Taylor and Francis, 2021) Waite, Imge Akcakaya; Alkay, Elif; Becerik Altındiş, SinemThis study attempts to close the gap between western planning studio education and its Turkish counterpart through a critical review of planning models and teaching methods they employ, focusing on an examination of a recent graduate-level studio experience from Istanbul Technical University. The case studio explored the application of the planning paradigm of collaborative planning and governance and experiential teaching methods in approaching the decades-old regeneration problems of an informal housing area in a dense neighborhood in central Istanbul. Through structured instructor observation and a student survey, the empirical research investigates the extent to which the master-level students have or have not benefitted from select contemporary planning and teaching approaches, and derives lessons for improving the instruction and experience of this and other planning studios in Turkey and beyond. The findings suggest that a collaboration- and governance-focused planning approach allowed the students to better keep up with and reflect on recent literature and debates. They took part in collaboration not only on site with different public, private and civil stakeholder groups but also with each other through close interactions between and within student groups both inside and outside the studio. The experiential learning methods employed, on the other hand, helped the planning studio live up to the corresponding principles of contemporary global studio education. ÖğeDistribution and Clustering of Turkish Cities on the Principle Components of Sustainable Quality of Life(KARE PUBL, 2021) Taylan Susan, ArzuThis article aimed to evaluate the quality of life across the NUTS-3 regions in Turkey with spatial aspects regarding objective and subjective indicators so that to contribute into socio-economic development and urbanization policies. Bringing the discussion of economists and geographers in measuring urban quality of life into regional development and sustainability context, this study applied principal component and k-means cluster analysis. Accordingly, five components constitute urban life quality in Turkey. Most distinguishing components are urbanization with "Higher Life Standards" and urbanization as "Happy, Healthy and Secure". That is, more economic, physical and social infrastructure investments seem always not to provide happiness and satisfaction. Based on these components, the cluster analysis revealed four city clusters. Cluster-2, which encompass greater cities and their neighbors with various scales in western Turkey, has the highest life standards and obtains intermediately happy residents. Surrounding them, Cluster-3 includes medium-small scale cities, which are the happiest cities that satisfy well-being utmost. Despite medium-level life standards, Cluster-I possesses unhappiest cities mostly in eastern and southeastern regions with greater population. In the same region, Cluster-4 cities are happier in spite of their lower level objective qualities. Based on results, higher objective life quality in greater cities addresses centralization and spillover effects, while lower subjective quality tends to be centrifugal. As greater cities experience both positive and negative influences of urbanization, the subjective evaluations decline in contrast to neighboring and more distant cities. Moreover, cities of eastern and southeastern regions seem to experience less positives and more externalities, which might be due to security problems. ÖğeWomen Organisations in Rural Within the Context of Thresholds and Values: Case of Federation of Productive Women Associations in Bursa(KARE PUBL, 2021) Erdoğan, ZeynepThe concept of development, which is mostly associated with economic growth, has been dealt with under many different headings such as social, human and rural development in the recent years. Women's labor and initiative is of great importance for the sustainability of development. The inclusion of women in the development process, especially in terms of how to organize labor of rural women, and ensure the continuity of the created forces, poses a problem for many developing countries including Turkey. At this stage, village women's associations stand out as a concrete indicators of the inclusion of women in rural areas. The aim of the study is to identify the obstacles faced by women, who are expected to be an important part of development, in the process of meeting this expectation, and to reveal the change that occurs when these obstacles are overcome. For this purpose, the study focused on rural women's organizations and discussed the impact of village women's associations on women's struggle for existence. Within the scope of the research, the Federation of Productive Women Associations in Bursa was examined via face-to-face and in-depth interviews with 21 Village Women Associations that are members of the federation. Especially the difficulties and social thresholds encountered during the establishment phase of associations, and the effects of the success achieved by ensuring continuity after the establishment phase on women were emphasized. The research draws attention to the gains such as self-confidence, entrepreneurship and awareness brought about by the activities of associations in village women. In this context, the study also aims to set an example for all women in terms of revealing the impact of women's organization on both rural and social development. ÖğeDeterminants of pre-radicalization: Religious or Rebel-without-a-cause hypothesis? An empirical test among French adolescents(IOS Press, 2021) Roché S.; Bilen, Ömer; Astor S.The study of the profiles of young adults involved in attacks and bombings in 2015 and 2016 in France highlighted a violent rejection of Western lifestyle and national identification. The question arises whether conflicting religious beliefs (religion hypothesis) and delinquent subculture (rebel-without-acause hypothesis) characterize a handful of violent attackers only or, rather, reflect social divides in the general youth population. We propose, based on literature, that there are known two features of a pre-radicalization stage: rejection of national community and justification of political violence. We intend to focus on what explains them in France. For that purpose, we use a large representative sample (n = 9.700) of adolescents, and structural equation modeling. Overall, our findings suggest that pre-radicalization reflects larger societal cleavages. Weak identification with the national community in France appears mainly driven by religious identity, and not religious fundamentalism. Justification of violence against outgroups/agents enforcing order is not predicted by religion, neither as belief system nor as identity. The sources of legitimation of violence are mainly found in espousing a delinquent subculture, and repeat exposure to state violence in the form of pretextual police stops. ÖğeArchitectural design communication (ADC) in online education during COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of Turkish and Spanish universitie(Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021) Akçay Kavakoğlu A.; Güleç Özer D.; Domingo-Callabuig D.; Bilen, ÖmerPurpose: The paper aims to examine the concept of architectural design communication (ADC) for updating design studio dynamics in architectural education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Within this perspective, the changing and transforming contents of architectural education, the thinking, representation and production mediums are examined through the determined components of ADC. There are five components in the study, which are (1) Effective Language Use, (2) Effective use of Handcrafts, (3) Effective Technical Drawing Knowledge, (4) Effective Architectural Software Knowledge and (5) Outputs. Design/methodology/approach: The research method is based on qualitative and quantitative methods; a survey study is applied and the comparative results are evaluated with the path analysis method. The students in the Department of Architecture of two universities have been selected as the target audience. Case study 1 survey is applied to Altinbas University (AU) and Case study 2 survey is applied to Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) students during the COVID-19 pandemic; ‘19-‘20 spring term, online education. Findings: As a result, two-path analysis diagrams are produced for two universities, and a comparative analysis is presented to reveal the relationships of the selected ADC components. Originality/value: This paper fulfills an identified need to study how ADC can be developed in online education platforms. ÖğeOral booster probiotic bifidobacteria in SARS-COV-2 patients(SAGE Publications Inc., 2021) Bozkurt H.S.; Bilen, ÖmerOral booster-single strain probiotic bifidobacteria could be a potential strategy for SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to evaluate the role of oral probiotic Bifidobacterium on moderate/severe SARS-CoV-2 inpatients. In this single-center study, we analyzed data of 44 moderate/severe inpatients with diagnosed COVID-19 in Istanbul Maltepe University Medical Faculty Hospital, 2020 from 1 November 2020 to 15 December 2020. Clinical and medication features were compared and analyzed between patients with or without probiotic. In result, 19 of the 44 patients (43.18%) who were administrated with oral booster-single strain probiotic were discharged with the median inpatient day of 7.6 days which were significantly shorter than those of patients without probiotic. There were significant differences in inpatient days, radiological improvement at day 6 and week 3, and reduction in interleukin-6 levels in those receiving oral probiotic therapy. Although the mortality rate was 5% in the probiotic group, it was 25% in the non-probiotic group. Booster-single strain probiotic bifidobacteria could be an effective treatment strategy for moderate/severe SARS-CoV-2 inpatients to reduce the mortality and length of stay in hospital. ÖğeSTRATEJİK PLANLAMA EKSENİNDE ERİŞİLEBİLİRLİK: TAMPON VE AĞ ANALİZLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRMALI DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ(2020) Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Karahan, Ebru KamacıGeleneksel planlama yaklaşımlarından farklı olarak stratejik planlama yaklaşımında yer alan seçicilik özelliği, belli bir kentsel kullanımın tek başına da değerlendirilerek plan strateji ve politikalarının oluşturulmasına olanak sağlamaktadır. Stratejik planlamanın seçicilik özelliği üzerinden yola çıkan bu çalışmada Kayseri ili özelinde yapılan sağlık tesisi yatırımlarının yer seçim kararlarının mekânsal erişilebilirliklerini Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri kullanılarak test etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Stratejik planlama yaklaşımının ülkemiz kent planlama yasal mevzuatında yer bulması ile birlikte CBS – Kent Planlama ilişkisinin daha görünür hale geleceği öngörülmektedir. Çalışmada kullanılan İstatistiki veri tabanları TÜİK, Kayseri Valiliği ve Sağlık Bakanlığı üzerinden oluşturulmuş, yerleşim alan lekelerinin oluşturulması için CORINE Arazi Örtüsü Verisi kullanılmıştır. Ağ ve Tampon analiz yöntemleri kullanılarak yapılan analizlerin temel sonuçları ise kısaca şöyledir: (1) kentsel donatı erişilebilirlik ve yer seçimi analizinde Ağ analizi tekniği Tampon analizine oranla daha uygundur; (2) çeper alandaki kırsal dokuda erişim değerleri düşük seyrederken, literatüre de uygun olarak kent merkezinde erişim değerleri yüksek seviyededir. ÖğeÜtopya Düşüncesinin Şehir Planlama ve Tasarım Eğitiminde Kullanımı: İradesiz Ütopyacılık(2018) Gül Çöteli, MethiyeÜtopyanın mimarlık ve kentsel tasarım eğitiminin değerli bir yöntemi olarak kullanımı sınırların ötesinde düşünmeye yardım etmektedir. Ancak eğitimin akılcı, analitik ya da bilimsel paradigmalar çerçevesinde örgütlenmesi ütopyanın demode bir düşünce olarak modern mimarlık ve şehircilik uygulamalarından uzaklaştırılmasına neden olmuştur. Bu araştırmada amaç ütopya ve eğitim ilişkisini yeniden sorgulamak ve yapılmamış bir çevrede iradesiz ütopya yaklaşımının şehir planlama eğitimine katkısını incelemektir. Metodolojik olarak Agamben’in Mesihçi ütopyacılığın zaman-mekân ölçütleri ile Lewis’in “iradesiz ütopya” düşüncesini kullanarak, planlama eğitimindeki uygulamanın ampirik sonuçları verilmiştir. Mesihçi zaman ve mekân kurgusu içinde tasarım eğitimi için çalışma alanı olarak Kültepe arkeolojik sit alanı belirlenmiş ve kantitatif bir anket uygulaması yapılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları iradesiz ütopyacı anlayışın stüdyo proje eğitiminde kullanımının öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünce geliştirmelerine katkıda bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Ayrıca, planlama eğitimi içerisinde bir yöntem olarak ütopya düşüncesinin yeniden canlandırılmasına vurgu yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda ütopyacı şehircilik anlayışında peşinde olunması gereken paradigmanın kusurlu ideali şimdiki kartografyada yaratmak üzerine kurgulanması gerektiği gösterilmiştir ÖğeGörsel Planlama Ve Pitoresk’i Yeniden Kurmak: Kentsel Tasarım Stüdyo Eğitiminde Kentsel Problemlere Yaklaşım(2017) Gül Çöteli, Methiyemanzarası (townscape) stratejisi, yere duyarlı bir çerçeve oluşturmak ve mahalleyi çevresindeki konut alanlarına entegre etmektir. Esasen şehir manzarasının kökenini temsil eden pitoresk, yani tablomsu bir şehircilik tasavvuru günümüzde kentsel tasarım bağlamında yeniden yükselen bir yaklaşımdır. İyi tasarımın nitelikleri ve kentsel tasarımcının becerilerinin geliştirilmesi ise tasarım okullarındaki kentsel tasarım eğitiminden geçmektedir. Kentsel tasarımın önemine rağmen eğitimin öğrenciye kazandırdığı rol üzerinde yeterince tartışma yapılmamıştır. Bu makalede Erciyes Üniversitesi Mimarlık Lisans Programı’nda yürütülen kentsel tasarım stüdyo süreci ve yöntemi kent planlama, kentsel tasarım, görsel planlama ve pitoresk yaklaşımlar açısından ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmanın içeriği stüdyo eğitiminde çalışma alanı olarak belirlenen İncesu kentinin iç bölgelerinde takip edilebilecek kentsel tasarım stratejileri tavsiye etmeyi içermektedir. Stüdyo süreci sonunda stratejik danışmanlık ve geliştirmeye ilişkin olarak üretilen uygulanabilir ve gerçekleşebilir diyagramlar, gayrimenkullerin yeniden geliştirilmesi ve yapılı çevrenin tasarımı için bir çerçeve sağlamaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra araştırma mimarlık öğrencilerine tasarım eğitiminde kazandırılan rol üzerindeki bilgimizi genişletmektedir. Bu çalışmanın katkısı pitoresk şehircilik ile toplumsal şehirciliğin buluşturulması gerektiğini teyit etmek olmuştur. ÖğeVAKFİYELERE GÖRE TİCARET YAPILARINA DAİR KENTSEL BİLGİNİN MEKÂNA İNDİRGENMESİ(2018) Gül Çöteli, MethiyeBu araştırmanın temel amacı oluşumu ve inkişafı açısından yapılı çevre üzerinde vakı? arın etkisini incelemek ve vak? yelerden elde edilen kentsel bilgiyi mekânsallaş-tırmaktır. Çalışmada bilhassa Kayseri tarihi ticaret bölgesinin oluşumu ve yayılımı üzerine vakıf etkisinin izlerini keşfetme yoluna gidilmiştir. Araştırma Kayseri kentinde ticari gayrimenkuller ile ilişkili Osmanlı dönemi vak? yelerine ve kentin iki boyutta mekânsal niteliklerini tasvir eden haritalarına dayanmaktadır. Ortaya çıkan harita ve tablolarda vakı? arın tarihi ticaret bölgesindeki çeşitli ticari gayrimenkulleri vurgulan-mıştır. Çalışmanın bulguları navigasyonel bir araç olarak kullanılabilen vak? yelerin hem kentsel hem de kırsal alanlarda yapılı çevrenin öznel bir kartoğrafyası olduğunu göstermektedir. Öğe6360 Sayılı Yasayla Mekansal İlişki Sisteminin Kır-Kent İkileminde Yeniden Yapılanışı ve Yerel Yönetimler: Kayseri İli Örneği(2016) Kılınç Ürkmez, Gökçen; Çelik, Hayat Zengin6360 sayılı Yasa ile birlikte ülkemiz idari coğrafyasında mekansal gelişme ve yetki mekanizmalarının yeniden yapılandığı bir sürece girilmiştir. Bu süreç esas olarak, kent ve kır temelinde var olan fiziksel ve toplumsal ayrışma deseninin yeniden nasıl yapılanacağı sorularını da gündeme taşımıştır. Bir bütünleştirme stratejisi olarak ortaya konmakla birlikte bugün pek çok noktada; kır-kent ayrımları ve belediye hizmetlerinin etkin dağılımında önemli sorunların açığa çıktığı izlenmektedir. Mevcut problemler gelecekteki olası sorunlar için bir takım öngörü ve değerlendirmelerin ivedilikle yapılması gerekliliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışma böyle bir gereklilik çerçevesinde Kayseri özelinde bazı değerlendirmeler yapmayı amaçlamaktadır. Yeni biçimlenişin yaratacağı durumun ilçe belediyeleri üzerinden tartışılacağı makalede, olası dönüşümlerin mekansal ve toplumsal etkilerine dikkat çekilmeye çalışılacaktır ÖğeBrownfield Redevelopment in Turkey as a Tool for Sustainable Urbanization(Intech Europe, 2016) Kılınç Ürkmez, GökçenBrownfield redevelopment is becoming a major planning issue with its environmental, social, economic, and spatial dimensions all around the world. As the attempts to manage the risks and costs associated with brownfields improve and the perception and awareness through the society increases, more stakeholders are put effort to achieve a broader range of environmental, social, and economic objectives under the concept of sustainable development. Since the mid-1980s, sustainable development has become widely discussed approach for integrating environmental needs with economic and social ones in human development. In this context, brownfields left over from industrialization provide an opportunity to address sustainable developments through urban planning approaches. As a result of the emergence of the sustainable development and brownfield regeneration agendas, there has been increased debate over the concept of "sustainable brownfield regeneration." Turkey has relatively a short history of industrialization; thus, brownfields are a new phenomenon which started to occur in the middle of 1980s. The brownfield policies in Turkey, generally discussed in context with urbanization and heritage preservation. However, their appearance and redevelopment have much related with the privatization and neoliberal policies which have had great effects in the country economic and social structure. Besides, EU candidacy have stimulated the compliance of Turkish legislation to the European standards since the beginning of last decade. Environmental and historical preservation and administrative decentralization constitute the significant subjects related to brownfields redevelopment. Cities in Turkey struggle with many economic, social, environmental, and politic problems. At this point, brownfields represent opportunities in order to obtain sustainability and increase the living standards especially in urban areas. This work aims to put forward the brownfield related policies in Turkey and to determine the main obstacles in brownfields redevelopment, the essential policies and strategies which can be transferred from Western countries experience and the essential steps which must be taken at the early stages of deindustrialization and decentralization for Turkey in context with sustainable urbanization. ÖğeRenewal and Rehabilitation Projects of Historic Town of Tavlusun(Yildiz Technical Univ, Fac Architecture, 2016) Gül Çöteli, MethiyeThe heritage of historic towns is of important economic, social and cultural value. Town conservation plans and projects covering longer periods of time have a coordinative role. However, they currently hold a weak position in the revival and evolution of the historic town of Tavlusun in Kayseri, Turkey. This paper examines the case of Tavlusun as an example of this process and explores the tools and programs for preserving a small town's urban heritage. The analysis deals essentially with the current conservation projects underway in the historic town of Tavlusun and discusses the alternative urban conservation scenarios of historic heritage. The main findings of the study are that the tools of town development and preservation are not being used in a way that serves the survival of the historic areas and maintains the prestige value of the historic area. In order to secure positive future scenarios for historic towns, the first task is to make an accurate assessment of the heritage and the second is to set strategic goals by making optimal use of the amenities and the cultural identity of the place. The study found that for a sustainable environment it is necessary to relocate certain functions which are in danger of abandonment. ÖğeSpatial Distribution Analysis of Syrian Immigrant Population Problem in Fatih - Istanbul(Konya Technical Univ, Fac Architecture & Design, 2020) Bilen, Ömer; Gur, Mehmet; Koç, Ersan; KamacI Karahan, EbruPurpose The paper reflects the impacts of the "Arab Spring" that broke out in Tunisia and Syria and led to the loss of more than 300,000 people. A wave of migration began in 2011, especially from Syria to its neighbouring countries including Turkey and Lebanon. Syrian migratory flows have caused social, economic, and ecological problems in the hosting countries. Turkey is one of the countries most affected by the wave of migration from Syria. Syrian refugees were unequally distributed or dispersed not only in leading metropolitan areas of western Turkey but also in many neighbouring cities in the southeast. The distribution of Syrian refugees in Turkish cities revealed considerable spatial heterogeneity and differences. Design/Methodology/Approach The sample size of the study is 953 and the margin of error of this sample size is +/- 3.17 at a 95% confidence level. Stratified simple random sampling was used. Interviews were Findings Fatih in Istanbul is one of the districts where Syrian immigrants most often settle. As part of the research on social risk mapping for Fatih District, immigrants - especially Syrian immigrants - have been identified as the main cause of problems by residents (the locals), with this group experiencing higher layoffs in terms of economic opportunities. Our analysis found that the main reason why Syrian immigrants are cited as a problem is "economic motivation". The rate at which Syrians are declared a problem in the districts of Fatih district is directly proportional to the distribution of the Syrian immigrant population. Research Limitations/Implications Time restriction, unfavourable weather conditions, missing information for socio economic status calculation, reluctance of women to join the survey. Originality/Value This study is the first research which examined spatially, how forced migration has an impact on local residents. Its results that can be useful for social measures towards urban planning and management to reduce the negative effects caused from forced migration population. Öğe"Inherited Gentrification": Changing Profiles of Gentrifiers via Inheritance, The Case of Bozcaada(Konya Technical Univ, Fac Architecture & Design, 2020) Okumuş, DuyguPurpose Rural areas have been through structural changes. The reorganisation of the rural economy from agriculture to services, in addition to improvements in transportation and infrastructures, migration patterns have started to reverse in some regions and hence to change the social composition of those regions' rural areas. These changes and their implications have been largely debated in the rural gentrification literature, mainly by re-presenting cases from the Anglo-Saxon world. This paper contributes to the rural gentrification literature by presenting an empirical study on a socio-cultural and demographic change that, together with a local economic shift, is taking place in a location other than the Global North. Design/Methodology/Approach A qualitative case study examining the changes on the socio-spatial structure of a small Turkish island, Bozcaada, is presented through the following principal indicators of countryside gentrification: the change in the socio-economic composition of its citizens; the emphasis on cultural or national heritage and aesthetics; the emergence of new institutions leading to the closure of older ones; the diversification of products and services; and the change in properties' value. Findings The first-generation newcomers were in line with the typical gentrifier's profile of rural gentrification studies. Differently, the second-generation newcomers have shown diversity in terms of both motivation and socio-economic class. This study argues that the second-generation newcomers took part naturally in the gentrification process not because they inherited their parents' properties, but also they play an important role in the significant socio-economic and cultural changes that are still taking place on the island. Research Limitations/Implications The fact that the research is based on a single case study is a limitation for its generalisation. However, the case examined provides a basis for future work that may validate its findings in different contexts. Originality/Value This paper contributes to the rural gentrification literature by introducing a new type of gentrification process, the 'inherited gentrification' with the identification of the second-generation gentrifiers of the island, who are the direct descendants of the first gentrifiers.