Analysis of cyber security knowledge gaps based on cyber security body of knowledge

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Due to the increasing number of cyber incidents and overwhelming skills shortage, it is required to evaluate the knowledge gap between cyber security education and industrial needs. As such, the objective of this study is to identify the knowledge gaps in cyber security graduates who join the cyber security workforce. We designed and performed an opinion survey by using the Cyber Security Knowledge Areas (KAs) specified in the Cyber Security Body of Knowledge (CyBOK) that comprises 19 KAs. Our data was gathered from practitioners who work in cyber security organizations. The knowledge gap was measured and evaluated by acknowledging the assumption for employing sequent data as nominal data and improved it by deploying chi-squared test. Analyses demonstrate that there is a gap that can be utilized to enhance the quality of education. According to acquired final results, three key KAs with the highest knowledge gap are Web and Mobile Security, Security Operations and Incident Management. Also, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Software Lifecycles, and Vulnerabilities are the knowledge areas with largest difference in perception of importance between less and more experienced personnel. We discuss several suggestions to improve the cyber security curriculum in order to minimize the knowledge gaps. There is an expanding demand for executive cyber security personnel in industry. High-quality university education is required to improve the qualification of upcoming workforce. The capability and capacity of the national cyber security workforce is crucial for nations and security organizations. A wide range of skills, namely technical skills, implementation skills, management skills, and soft skills are required in new cyber security graduates. The use of each CyBOK KA in the industry was measured in response to the extent of learning in university environments. This is the first study conducted in this field, it is considered that this research can inspire the way for further researches.


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Cyber security, Cyber security body of knowledge, Data analysis, Data mining, education, Knowledge gaps, Skill gaps, Survey


Education and Information Technologies

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Catal C, Ozcan A, Donmez E, Kasif A. Analysis of cyber security knowledge gaps based on cyber security body of knowledge. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2023;28(2):1809-1831. doi: 10.1007/s10639-022-11261-8. Epub 2022 Aug 5. PMID: 35967829; PMCID: PMC9362361.