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  • Öğe
    A Study on the Relationship between New Age Beliefs and Various Variables: The Case of Bursa
    (CUMHURIYET UNIV, 2022) Ahmedi, Ekber Şah
    This study examines new age beliefs, which can be considered as individual religiosity. The study aims to measure the relationship between new age beliefs and the level of religious knowledge and religiosity of individuals. As known, classical secularization theorists predicted that religious, mythological, and similar supernaturalist structures will gradually lose their importance with the modernization process. In other words, according to classical secularization theories, metaphysically based beliefs will weaken and lose their prestige as a result of the differentiation and rationalization of societies. Besides, religiosity will not only lose its decisive influence on social institutions but will also be significantly withdrawn from the life of the individual. However, although it has lost its decisive role in directing life relatively in (post)modern societies compared to the past, it can be stated that religion still exists in different forms as an important social institution. In other words, it can be argued that religion takes on different forms in societies where institutional religion has weakened. There is no consensus on how these forms of religiosity should be defined. However, concepts such as new religions, cults, esoteric movements, new religious movements, new age beliefs, and new age spiritualism have been introduced to describe these phenomena. Although it is possible to bring together the aforementioned religious structures within the framework of the concept of new religiosity or new religion, the differences between them seem so important that they cannot be ignored. For this reason, the religious phenomena in question can be handled under two general headings as new religious movements and new age beliefs. The roots of new religious movements, which generally emerged by separating from traditional religions, go back to the 18th century. New religious movements such as Mormonism, which are shaped around a specific organization and authority, often point to a centralized religious structure. New age beliefs, on the other hand, are generally used to describe individual hybrid belief forms that do not have a central organization, have no authority, and are centered on self-development. It can be stated that both new religious movements and new age beliefs were born to perform functions that weakened institutional religions could not fulfill, and to offer a world of meaning to modern individuals who feel in a spiritual vacuum. It can be argued that these spiritualist movements, which started to emerge in Western Europe and the United States, especially after the Second World War, led to the questioning of the basic theses of classical secularization theories, which were put forward to explain the religious change in modern societies. It has been determined that similar religious structures have begun to gain visibility in our modernizing country. As a sociological phenomenon, it is important to investigate the subject by considering its different dimensions. In this context, the current research, which was planned in a quantitative design, used in addition to the demographic information form, the new age beliefs scale developed by Mevlut Kaya and Cuneyt Aydin. The research was conducted with 382 students studying at various faculties/departments of Bursa Technical University and Bursa Uludag University. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS 25 software. In the study, a negative correlation was found between the level of perceived religiosity and new age beliefs. In other words, the new age belief scores of individuals who see themselves as religious were lower than the other participants. In addition, in the research, an inversely proportional relationship was determined between academic religious knowledge and new age beliefs. According to the findings, the new age belief scores differ significantly according to the type of high school from which the individuals graduated and the department/faculty studied. In other words, the new age belief scores of imam hatip high school graduates are significantly lower than the anatolian high school, regular high school, vocational high school, and other high school graduates, and the scores of the students studying at the faculty of divinity are significantly lower than the students studying at other departments and faculties. In the light of the findings, it can be argued that the tendency of individuals to new religious forms will increase as institutional religiosity and religious knowledge decrease.
  • Öğe
    A new signal processing-based islanding detection method using pyramidal algorithm with undecimated wavelet transform for distributed generators of hydrogen energy
    (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2022) Yılmaz, Alper; Bayrak, Gökay
    Machine learning-based fault detection methods are frequently combined with wavelet transform (WT) to detect an unintentional islanding condition. In contrast to this condition, these methods have long detection and computation time. Thus, selecting a useful signal processing-based approach is required for reliable islanding detection, especially in real-time applications. This paper presents a new modified signal processing-based islanding detection method (IDM) for real-time applications of hydrogen energy-based distributed generators. In the study, a new IDM using a modified pyramidal algorithm approach with an undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) is presented. The proposed method is performed with different grid conditions with the presence of electric noise in real-time. Experimental results show that oscillations in the acquired signal can be reduced by the UWT, and noise sensitivity is lower than other WT-based methods. The non-detection zone is zero and the maximum detection and computational time is also 75 ms at a close power match.(c) 2022 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    Effect of diffusion annealing on duplex coated pure titanium produced by hot-dip aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation
    (ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2022) Yürektürk, Yakup
    In the present study, an Al2O3 ceramic coating was formed on a pure titanium surface with the application of the duplex coating technology produced by combining hot-dip aluminizing (HDA) and micro-arc oxidation (MAO) processes. Due to the porous nature of MAO coating with the structural and mechanical differences between the MAO (Al2O3) and HDA layers (Al, Al3Ti), diffusion annealing treatment was applied to duplex coated (HDA + MAO) titanium samples. With the diffusion annealing treatment, a composite layer with a thickness of about 125 mu m was formed beneath the modified MAO coating, which showed a denser structure by penetrating TiO2 into the MAO. MAO coatings with and without diffusion annealing exhibited compressive residual stresses with values of-1530 and-850 MPa, respectively. Microhardness and elastic modulus of the diffusion annealing-treated MAO coating reached 1230.1 HV and 241.3 GPa, respectively. The diffusion annealing-treated MAO coating provided-29% less coefficient of friction and-8.4 times greater relative wear resistance than that of MAO coating without diffusion annealing.
  • Öğe
    A Density Functional Theory Study on Graphene Triple Doped with Ga, Ge, P, Si, and Al
    (MAIK NAUKA, 2022) Serinçay, Nazmiye; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi
    The basic properties of graphene surfaces doped with Ga, Ge, P, Si, and Al were investigated using DFT (density functional theory). The structural, electrical, chemical and optical properties obtained by doping three elements onto the graphene structures modeled as a single layer were obtained in quantum chemical calculations with the WB97XD/6-31G(d,p) method. The HOMO-LUMO gap value, which expresses its chemical hardness, has decreased in the graphene structures doped with Ga-Ga-Ga, Ge-Ge-Ge, P-P-P, Si-Si-Si, and Al-Al-Al. Increased rigidity in doped graphene structures, increased movement of the system towards a more stable configuration, higher stability of the electronic structure, high chemical reactivity, high chemical potential, low electronegativity value, and high electrical conductivity. Increasing properties of element-doped graphene structures have predicted the structure's use in electronic devices such as transistors, energy storage devices, conductors, and sensors.
  • Öğe
    A novel approach based on type-2 fuzzy sets to augment technology roadmaps
    (GAZI UNIV, 2022) Barip, Semanur; Altun, Koray
    Importance of RDI outputs is increasing day by day in the business world. Harmony of RDI activities and technology strategies is one of the important guarantees of sustainable success. At this stage, the first thing that comes to mind is the "technology roadmaps", which have been commonly used in order to direct RDI activities. Technology roadmaps are the tools linking technological developments and changes with other relevant layers (products, services, market, etc.), and thus they assist in decision making. To obtain a valid technology roadmap, its inter-element relationships need to be well-established. This study proposes an infographic for the relationships between technology roadmap elements. In this study, importance of the relationships and the relationship degree of element pairs are evaluated through the use of interval type-2 fuzzy systems (IT2FS). The infographic employing these evaluation results augments the technology roadmaps. In order to illustrate how the proposed process executes, a case of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies is presented. Consequently, it is considered that these augmented technology roadmaps contribute to strategy planning and technology management, especially for large-scale cases.
  • Öğe
    THE IMPACT OF URBAN POPULATION CHANGE ON FORESTS, IN-FOREST RECREATION AREAS AND URBAN FORESTS IN TURKEY
    (CORVINUS UNIV BUDAPEST, 2022) Köse, Murat
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of rapid population growth and urbanization on forests, in-forest recreation areas and urban forests in Turkey. Therefore, through the consideration of the urban population changes in Turkey between 1973-2019, "Forestry Statistics" related to the changes in the forest existence, in-forest recreational areas and urban forests were evaluated. Within the scope of "Forestry Statistics", both forestry data and population data were considered separate variables, and 36 variables were created in this context. According to this, while the total forest area in Turkey was 20,199,296 ha in 1973, it increased by 2,541,001 ha (12.6%) and reached 22,740,297 ha by 2019. According to the up-to-date data, there have been increases in growing stock and annual current increment, as well as forest areas in Turkey. It is a fact that there is a transformation in favor of forests in rural areas of the country. However, it is not possible to talk about a similar situation in urban areas. Although there is a positive correlation between the urban population and forest presence across the country, it is not at the same rate. The urban population increases several times faster than the extent of forest areas and growing stock.
  • Öğe
    Hydrogen adsorption on Ni doped carbon nanocone
    (ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2022) Köse, Ahmet; Yüksel, Numan; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi
    Hydrogen adsorption was investigated on Ni doped carbon nanocone (Ni-CNC) 180 degrees C by Density Functional Theory (DFT). The WB97XD method was used with the 6-31G(d,p) and LanL2DZ basis sets. The electronegativity, HOMO and LUMO energies, chemical hardness, chemical potential, adsorption enthalpy and adsorption energy values have been calculated for hydrogen adsorption on Ni-CNC structure. The adsorption enthalpy value of hydrogen molecule was calculated as-27.8 kJ/mol. According to the storage capacity study for the Ni-CNC structure, it was found that this structure adsorbed eight hydrogen molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity was calculated to be similar to 4.3 wt%. After hydrogen adsorption, there was no significant decrease in HOMO-LUMO gap value. In addition, this situation indicates that the electrical conductivity of the Ni-CNC structure does not increase. These results show that the Ni-CNC structure cannot be used as a sensor for the hydrogen molecule, but it is a promising candidate material for hydrogen storage at room temperature.
  • Öğe
    Consideration of graphene material in PCM with aluminum fin structure for improving the battery cooling performance
    (WILEY, 2022) Aslan, Eyyüp; Aydın, Yusuf; Yasa, Yusuf
    Phase change material (PCM) based battery thermal management system (BTMS) provides even heat distribution and lower maximum temperature, but it suffers from low thermal conductivity. In this study, the impact of graphene additive on PCM was analyzed by presenting three experiments with various structures to solve PCM's low thermal conductivity problem. The results demonstrate that there is no positive impact of graphene additive in the first and third structures. The PCM-graphene additive between the second structure's fins significantly improves the battery heat transfer by allowing the battery to cool down 1500 seconds earlier than the graphene-free structure. Moreover, a thermal equivalent circuit model was derived for the second structure because of its enhanced performance. It is shown that the model works accurately and proves its ability to control not only temperature fluctuations but also transient behavior of the battery. This model provides that the battery temperature can be analyzed without experimentation for different charge-discharge scenarios in lithium-ion batteries with a shorter computation time.
  • Öğe
    The Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Polylactic Acid/Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol Multi-Material Structures Manufactured by Material Extrusion
    (MARY ANN LIEBERT, 2022) Demir, Emre; Duygu, İnal Kaan; Bedeloğlu, Ayşe
    The mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), and PLA/PETG structures manufactured using the multi-material additive manufacturing (MMAM) method were studied in this work. Material extrusion additive manufacturing was used to print PLA/PETG samples with various PLA and PETG layer numbers. By varying the top and bottom layer numbers of two thermoplastics, the effect of layer number on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed structures was investigated. The chemical and thermal characteristics of PLA and PETG were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tensile and flexural strength of 3D-printed PLA, PETG, and PLA/PETG samples were determined using tensile and three-point bending tests. The fracture surfaces of the samples were evaluated using optical microscopy. The results indicated that multi-material part containing 13 layers of PLA and 3 layers of PETG exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength (65.4 MPa) and a good flexural strength (91.4 MPa). MMAM was discovered to be a viable way for producing PLA/PETG materials with great mechanical performance.
  • Öğe
    Investigation of mechanical properties of hybrid stainless steel/acrylic and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite
    (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2022) Yılmaz, Ayten Nur Yüksel; Yunus, Doruk Erdem; Bedeloğlu, Ayşe
    Hybrid composite specimens were produced with stainless steel-acrylic (SSA) and carbon fiber reinforcement in order to achieve ductile behavior compared to CF reinforced epoxy composites. Laminated composites containing CF and SSA fabrics in with different ply configurations were manufactured using vacuum infusion method. In addition, CF fabric was used in two different ply orientations (0-45 degrees). In both the flexural and tensile test results, composites having CF oriented at 0 degrees showed higher strength and modulus but lower strain than composites having CF oriented at 45 degrees. When the number of carbon fiber layers increased, the composites showed high strength and modulus, but low strain. Increasing the number of SSA significantly increased the flexural and tensile strains of laminated composites. After the mechanical tests, the fracture surfaces of the specimens were examined with an optical microscope and matrix cracks, fiber breakage, fiber pull-out and delamination failures were observed.
  • Öğe
    Immobilization of propolis extract on PET fabric for biomedical applications
    (GAZI UNIV, 2022) Gümüş, Ömer Yunus; İsmahane, Yssaad
    Propolis has biological activity due to its wide variety of phenolic compound content. Propolis usage in many areas such as cosmetics, food, medicine, and biomedicals is becoming widespread day by day due to its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties. In this study, phenolics extracted from propolis were covalently bonded and immobilized on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with the aim of developing a technical textile for biomedical applications. To do so, PET fabric was aminated, and then the phenolics were immobilized using polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as the crosslinking agent. Formation of amine groups in PET structure and immobilization of the phenolics were proved by ATR-FTIR spectrums. Water contact angle of PET being 121 degrees decreased to 110 degrees and 97 degrees after the amination and the immobilization, respectively. Optical microscope images were taken to monitor morphological changes after the processes. DSC results revealed a new endothermic peak at around 40 degrees C for modified PET. Tensile tests showed that tensile strength of the fabric weakens upon modification, while a healing effect occurs during immobilization. Antibacterial tests revealed that propolis extract immobilized fabric has an antibacterial activity against gram negative (E. coli) bacteria.
  • Öğe
    Highly durable spray-coated superhydrophobic surface: Pre-anodizing and fatty acid chain length effect
    (KOREAN INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 2022) Aras, Ömür; Baydır, Enver; Akman, Buğra
    In the study, aluminum plates were first anodized and then coated with ZnO by spray-pyrolysis method. By modification with long chain fatty acid, these surfaces demonstrate superior hydrophobicity and durability. After optimizing the anodizing time for each fatty acid, several runs were conducted by varying concentration and spray solution quantity. Comparison was made by optimizing the process parameters in which each acid showed maximum hydrophobicity. Anodized, spray coated and modified surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and topography analysis. The chemical and mechanical strength of the surfaces were explored under various extreme conditions. The highest contact angle of 164 degrees was obtained by coating 10 minutes anodized surface with 0.4 M and 15 ml ZnNO3 solution and modifying it with stearic acid. In the performed tests, it has been observed that this surface is much more durable than surfaces modified with other fatty acids.
  • Öğe
    A DFT investigation of hydrogen adsorption and storage properties of Mg decorated IRMOF-16 structure
    (ELSEVIER, 2022) Yüksel, Numan; Köse, Ahmet; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi
    Herein, the hydrogen storage property of the Mg decorated isoreticular metal organic framework-16 (IRMOF-16) is investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The WB97XD hybrid method (including dispersion) was used for hydrogen adsorption on Mg decorated IRMOF-16 structure. It was determined that the adsorption enthalpy for the structure was negative (-4.2 kJ/mol) at room temperature and thus it could be a potential adsorbent material for the hydrogen. The gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of the IRMOF-16 structure decorated with four Mg atoms was determined as ~5.8 wt%. According to the electronic properties, it was revealed that the Mg-IRMOF-16 structure could not be used as an electronic sensor against the hydrogen molecule.
  • Öğe
    Housing for Degrowth: Principles, Models, Challenges and Opportunities, (1st edn)
    (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2022) Karahan, Ebru Kamacı
    Housing for Degrowth: Principles, Models, Challenges and Opportunities, (1st edn)
  • Öğe
    Effects of carbon nanotubes on mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced composite under static loading
    (WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2022) Kaboğlu, Cihan; Ferik, Erdem
    The purpose of this research article is to show the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) addition on fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites produced by the vacuum infusion method on tensile performance. In this study, glass, carbon, and fiber fabric reinforced polymer matrix composite plates were produced using glass, carbon and aramid fiber fabrics with the same weave type and similar areal density. Using the same production parameters, the composite plates reinforced with different fiber types were produced with CNTs addition by 0.5 wt% of total composite. Additionally, since it is thought that the effect of CNTs on performance in different fiber types may be different, hybrid fiber fabric reinforced composite plate material containing a composition of glass, carbon and fiber fabrics was produced and this material was produced with CNTs additive using the same production parameters as in previous fiber reinforced composite plate productions. In the study, composite plates with and without CNTs were produced in various compositions including glass, carbon, aramid, and hybrid fiber fabrics. As a result, CNTs reinforcement has increased the mechanical performance under tensile stress in glass, carbon, and hybrid reinforced fabric composite structures, but on aramid fiber, CNTs has decreased the performance.
  • Öğe
    DETERMINATION OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND VOLATILE COMPONENTS OF ENDEMIC Eryngium bithynicum Boiss
    (PARLAR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (P S P), 2022) Sarıkaya, Ayşe Gül; Kavaklı, Seydi Ahmet
    Medicinal and aromatic plants, whose importance has increased in recent years, are used in many industries such as food, cosmetics, cleaning and pharmaceuticals. Eryngium genus with the most species in the Apiaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic value. In this study, it was aimed to determine some morphological features, volatile components and rates of the endemic Eryngium bithynicum Boiss. For determination of morphological features, the number of flowers. diameter of flower heads, length of bracts and number of bracts were measured. Volatile components of flowers and bracts were determined using the solid phase micro-extraction technique (SPME). 60 different volatile components were determined; alpha-Pinene (16.42 /o), beta-Myrcene (17.91%) and [3-Sesquiphellandrene (18.89%) were found as the main components.
  • Öğe
    Effect of Printing Temperature on Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Ultra-flexible Thermoplastic Polyurethane in Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing
    (SPRINGER, 2022) Gümüş, Ömer Yunus; İlhan, Recep; Canlı, Berat Enes
    Material extrusion (ME) is one of the additive manufacturing methods and widely used to produce polymer-based parts. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a relatively new material in ME. It has microdomains consisting of hard segments (HS) and soft segments (SS) in varying proportions. This structural complexity and weak interactions between HS and SS cause the properties of TPUs to become very sensitive to processing parameters such as temperature. In this study, the effect of printing temperature in a range of 170-250 degrees C on the physical, mechanical, and viscoelastic properties of ultra-flexible TPU (Shore A 60) samples was investigated. Furthermore, to elucidate the effect of the manufacturing method, a sample prepared by compression molding (CM) at 230 degrees C was used. Thermal transitions of the samples were analyzed by DSC. Increasing T-g values were observed in correlation with increased printing temperature. A relation between T-g and hardness values was thus established. In order to observe molecular weight (M) changes after printing, zero shear viscosities (eta(0)) of polymer solutions were examined and preserved M values up to 200 degrees C were detected. Mechanical properties of the samples were analyzed through tensile tests. Among the samples including CM, the highest tensile strength and elongation at break were 37.6 MPa and 921%, respectively, which was detected for the sample printed at 230 degrees C. Oscillation tests revealed that both entanglements and HS content influence storages modulus (G '). Among the printed parts, highest G ' value was measured at 220 degrees C printing temperature. This result was attributed to the synergistic effect of entanglement and HS. Furthermore, it is concluded that chain alignment has greater contribution on mechanical properties than M, whereas viscoelastic properties is more sensitive to M.
  • Öğe
    Moving-load dynamic analysis of AFG beams under thermal effect
    (Techno-Press, 2022) Akbaş, Şeref Doǧuşcan
    In presented paper, moving load problem of simply supported axially functionally graded (AFG) beam is investigated under temperature rising based on the first shear beam theory. The material properties of beam vary along the axial direction. Material properties of the beam are considered as temperature-dependent. The governing equations of problem are derived by using the Lagrange procedure. In the solution of the problem the Ritz method is used and algebraic polynomials are used with the trivial functions for the Ritz method. In the solution of the moving load problem, the Newmark average acceleration method is used in the time history. In the numerical examples, the effects of material graduation, temperature rising and velocity of moving load on the dynamic responses of AFG beam are presented and discussed.
  • Öğe
    Evaluation of mechanical behavior, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity of chitosan/akermanite-TiO2 3D-printed scaffolds for bone tissue applications
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2022) Bulut, Büşra; Duman, Şeyma
    This report aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity of novel chitosan/akermanite-TiO2 (CS/AK/Ti) composite scaffolds fabricated using the 3D-printing method. The morphological and structural properties of these scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical behavior was examined by measuring the compressive strength, while the bioactivity was estimated in the simulated body fluid (SBF), and also the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was assessed by conducting cell culturing experiments in vitro. It was found that the mechanical properties were considerably affected by the amount of TiO2. The scaffolds had the possessed bone-like apatite forming ability, which indicated high bioactivity. Furthermore, L929 cells spread well on the surface, proliferated, and had good viability regarding the cell behaviors. The outcomes confirmed that the morphological, biological, and mechanical properties of developed 3D-composite scaffolds nearly mimicked the features of natural bone tissue. In summary, these findings showed that the 3D-printed scaffolds with an interconnected pore structure and improved mechanical properties were a potential candidate for bone tissue applications.
  • Öğe
    Multi-image Crowd Counting Using Multi-column Convolutional Neural Network
    (Springer, 2022) Kurnaz, Oğuzhan; Hanilçi, Cemal
    Crowd density estimation is an important task for security applications. It is a regression problem consisting of feature extraction and estimation steps. In this study, we propose to use a modified version of previously introduced multi-column convolutional neural network (MCNN) approach for estimating crowd density. While in the original MCNN approach the same input image is applied to the each column of the network, we first propose to apply a different version of the same input image to extract a different mapping from each column. Second, original MCNN first generates an estimated density map and then performs crowd counting. Therefore, we adopt it for crowd counting and compare its performance with the proposed method. Regression task is performed by support vector regression (SVR) using feature vectors obtained from MCCNN. 2000 images selected from UCSD pedestrian dataset are used in the experiments. The regions of interest (ROI) are filtered out and the pixel values at the remaining regions are set to zero. In order to prevent distortion caused by camera position, perspective normalization has been applied as a pre-processing step which dramatically improves the performance.