First insight into polybrominated diphenyl ethers in car dust in Turkey: concentrations and human exposure implications
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The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the car is due to their use as a flame retardant additive in various car components such as dashboard, plastic parts, seat and headliner cushion foams, insulated cables, and electronic circuits. Ingestion of dust inadvertently or dermal contact to dust are significant pathways of human exposure to pollutants including PBDEs. There are no studies documenting presence of car dust associated flame retardants in Turkey. In the current study, a total of 13 PBDEs congeners were investigated in 62 car dust samples collected from Bursa province of Turkey using glass-fiber filters and a vacuum cleaner. Results of the study showed that congener concentrations were within the range of <MDL-40198 ng/g and PBDE-209, major component of commercial deca-BDE, showed the highest concentration among the targeted congeners. Assessment of exposure to analyzed PBDEs via inadvertent dust ingestion and skin contact showed toddlers are exposed to these chemicals approx. 10 times higher compared to adults. Hazard quotient (HQ) values calculated based on total exposure (ingestion + dermal contact) and were < 1 for both adults and toddler indicated that exposure to car dust-associated PBDEs through ingestion and skin contact does not pose any health risks for human in Bursa.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Car dust, Ingestion, Dermal contact, Exposure assessment, Bursa, Turkey
Environmental Science And Pollution Research
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