Total phenolic and antioxidant bioaccessibilities of cookies enriched with bee pollen

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John Wiley and Sons Inc

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of bee pollen (BP; 5%, 10%, 15%) as a functional ingredient in cookies. Evaluation of physicochemical and sensory properties with total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacities in extractable, hydrolyzable, and bioaccessible fractions of enriched cookies was studied. With the addition of BP, carbohydrate content of the cookies decreased, while ash, total protein and total fat content, spread ratio (SR), the browning index, and hardness of the cookies increased. TPC of the enriched cookies were determined as 352.70–401.13 mg/100 g, of which 92.27%–93.16% were hydrolyzable phenolic content, and only 8.55%–9.26% of the TPC were bioaccessible. In addition, the cookies produced with the addition of BP were accepted in terms of their sensory properties. In the light of the information obtained, it can be said that BP is an ingredient that can improve the quality criteria while improving the functional properties of the cookies. Practical applications: There is limited information about functional and physico-chemical properties of pollen-fortified cookies. There are scarcely any studies in the literature on the hydrolyzable and bioaccessible of TPC and antioxidant capacity in pollen (none in products with pollen). In this study, the cookies were fortified with BP and the physico-chemical, sensory attributes, extractable, hydrolyzable, and bioaccessible of TPC, antioxidant capacities (two different methods; ABTS and DPPH) of the developed products were evaluated.


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Journal of Food Processing and Preservation

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