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  • Öğe
    EGE DENİZİ’NDEKİ KARASULARI SORUNUNUN TÜRK VE ULUSLARARASI DENİZ TİCARETİ’NE ETKİLERİ
    (2018) Ceyhun, Gökçe Çiçek
    Günümüz dünyasında devletlerin en temel stratejilerinden biri, enerji hatlarını ve enerji kaynaklarını kontrol altına alarak rekabet güçlerini geliştirmektir. Türkiye, coğrafi konumunun verdiği üstünlükten kaynaklanan nedenlerle özellikle deniz alanları açısından rekabet gücü yüksek ülkeler arasında yer almaktadır. Bu nedenle Türkiye, yük taşımacılığından aldığı yüksek pay ve deniz ticareti açısından bölgede oynadığı kilit rol ile denizlere ilişkin uyguladığı politikalar açısından dikkat çekici bir konumdadır. Deniz ticaret rotaları, hukuksal olarak transit geçiş ve zararsız geçiş gibi serbestiler söz konusu olmasına rağmen deniz alanlarına ilişkin aidiyet sorunundan etkilenmektedir. Özellikle tartışmalı deniz alanlarında gemilerin izleyecekleri ticari rotalar, geçiş rejimine ilişkin olarak sahildar devletin kendi lehine alabileceği bir takım tedbirlerden etkilenme potansiyeline sahiptir. Her ne kadar teoride geçiş serbestisi öngörülse de pratikte karşılıklı kıyı devletleri arasında yaşanan çekişmeler, gelecekte yaşanabilecek büyük sorunların göstergesini teşkil etmektedir. Sahildar devletlerarasında gerek karasuları, gerekse kıta sahanlığı ve münhasır ekonomik bölge gibi konularda Dünya ölçeğinde pek çok sorun mevcuttur. Bunların en bilinenlerinden birisi de Türkiye ve Yunanistan arasında süregelen Ege Denizi’ndeki karasuları sorunudur. Bu çalışmada Ege Denizi’ndeki karasuları sınırlandırmalarına ilişkin gelişmelerin ülkemiz deniz ticareti ve uluslararası deniz ticaretine olası etkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında derinlemesine literatür taraması yapılmış, deniz ticaret rotalarına ilişkin haritalar aracılığıyla mevcut durum incelenmiş ve olası senaryolar tartışılarak, geleceğe yönelik tedbir ve öngörüler sunularak çalışma sonlandırılmıştır.
  • Öğe
    Container Port Selection in Contestable Hinterlands
    (2016) Akbayırlı, Kemal; Deveci, Durmuş Ali; Balcı, Gökçay; Kurtuluş, Ercan
    Gelişen hinterlant bağlantıları, liman inovasyonları, liman özelleştirme politikaları ve liman kullanıcılarının değişen özel beklentileri nedeniyle liman rekabeti her geçen gün daha çetin bir hal almaktadır. Bu rekabetçi ortam liman hinterlantlarının kazanılmış olmaktan çıkıp rekabete açık olmalarına yol açmıştır. Bu rekabete açık ve rekabetçi hinterlantlardan pay almak için hizmet kalitesinin düzeyinin ve servis çeşitliliğinin belirlenmesinde müşteri odaklı olmak elzemdir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmanın amacı, rekabete açık hinterlantlardaki liman kullanıcılarının liman seçim kriterlerini araştırmak ve bu liman kullanıcılarının seçim kriterlerini ölçen bir model geliştirmektir. Rekabete açık hinterlantlarda liman seçimine ilişkin bir model geliştirmek için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanmıştır. Model 7 ana çatı ve toplam 32 kriterden oluşmaktadır. Model, rekabete açık alanlarda limanların rekabetçiliğinin sadece hizmet tabanlı etmenlerden etkilenmediğini ayrıca, limana uğrak yapan hatların sayısı ve sıklığı gibi dış faktörlerin de oldukça önemli olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.
  • Öğe
    Recent Developments of Artificial Intelligence in Business Logistics: A Maritime Industry Case
    (Springer, 2020) Ceyhun, Gökçe Çiçek
    Fast-growing technological features of today drive all companies in all sectors to mechanization with automation by Artificial Intelligence (AI). As the maritime and logistics sector moves toward fully digital, AI becomes significant competition element for leading shipping companies in business logistics and maritime nations. Although the use of artificial intelligence requires great investment in the short term, it brings profitability by reducing the costs in the long term. Moreover the environmental regulations of IMO (International Maritime Organization) will hit the maritime industry in 2020 by forcing maritime companies to reduce sulfur content in fuel at 0.5%. From this aspect, using AI will also contribute to reduce ship related carbon emissions by implementing environmentally friendly applications. On the other hand, profitability of seaports will scale up by using emerging technologies that helps accurate forecasts by using scientific innovations related with empty and full container records and their allocations. Moreover, using AI will contribute to the prevention of ship related accidents by anticipating future cases with using pinpoint calculations. Lastly, the basic requirement of implementing sustainable development which is necessary to compete is to follow and implement technological innovations as AI. That’s why this paper researches recent developments and current practices of maritime companies related with AI and shed lights on future studies in terms of shipping companies, maritime workers, governmental authorities and any other rule makers and practitioners. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
  • Öğe
    Maritime environmental disaster management using intelligent techniques
    (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2017) Akyüz, Emre; Ilbahar, E.; Cebi, S.; Celik, M.
    The maritime environmental disasters are generally caused by collision, grounding, stranding heavy weather, explosion or fire. These disasters can cause spillage of oil, bunker, dirty water or chemical harmful substances. It is well known that the most known environmental disaster in maritime having serious impacts on marine life is oil spill. Although several intelligence techniques like heuristic search algorithms, machine learning, and fuzzy approach have been employed in maritime sector with various purposes, in the literature, applications of intelligent techniques for the solution of the maritime environmental disaster problems are quite limited. In this study, an intelligent system which consists of model-base, database, environmental disaster management actions, ship operation management actions, user interface, environmental disaster modelling, and decision support unit has been proposed. The proposed system, called as Maritime Intelligent Environmental Disaster Management (MIEDM), is aimed at strengthening operating mechanism along with the mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases to eliminate the potential impacts of maritime environmental disasters. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.
  • Öğe
    A hybrid accident analysis method to assess potential navigational contingencies: The case of ship grounding
    (Elsevier Science Bv, 2015) Akyüz, Emre
    Safety is always critical aspect for marine industry since there are numerous perils at sea and those may result loss of ship, environment pollution, human injury and even loss of life. The studies show that the most of marine accidents are due to decision error (Chauvin et al., 2013) as the human factors are one of the main contributory factors of marine accident particularly grounding of ships at sea. In this context, maritime authorities struggle to decrease marine accidents at sea by enforcing rules and regulations. However, the marine accidents are still on-going. This paper primarily deals with potential navigational contingencies in particular grounding incident by proposing a hybrid accident analysis method to enhance safety in marine industry. The hybrid approach basically incorporates Accident Analyse Mapping (AcciMap) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) methods to analyse causes of marine accidents analytically. Whilst AcciMap analyses marine accident causes schematically, the ANP technique weights them analytically which can be obtained from the synthesised supermatrix. The proposed hybrid approach is demonstrated with a real-case grounding incident at sea. Thus, prominent accident causes are revealed and necessary preventive measures are proposed in advance. Consequently, the study is expected to contribute maritime safety as well as prevent grounding accidents at sea by encouraging maritime safety engineers and ship operators. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    Utilisation of Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA) for quantified risk analysis of leakage in abandoned oil and natural-gas wells
    (Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2015) Lavasani, Seyed Miri; Ramzali, Nahid; Sabzalipour, Farinaz; Akyüz, Emre
    It is a fact that a significant number of drilled wells are abandoned each year. Abandoned wells, those that have been Permanently Abandoned (PA), might have some risks with disastrous consequences. Moreover, abandoned leaking oil wells and natural-gas wells can cause serious damage to environment. In conventional Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), the failure probabilities of components of a system are treated as exact values in estimating the failure probability of the Top Event (TE). There is always a lack of data for calculating the failure rate of components in the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy theory can be used as solution to solve the problem. The aim of this paper is to analyse the leakage through PA oil and natural-gas wells in drilling industry by utilising Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has provided theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and ocean environmental protection. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Öğe
    A fuzzy DEMATEL method to evaluate critical operational hazards during gas freeing process in crude oil tankers
    (Elsevier Sci Ltd, 2015) Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Erkan
    Gas freeing process in crude oil tanker ships is widely recognized one of the most hazardous aspects of shipboard operations. Although the process provides practical benefits to ship by removing the explosive or poisonous gases from the cargo tanks and raising the oxygen level up to 21 percent, the consequences of failure may cause serious damage to human health, marine environment and cargo. Therefore, the crew exercise utmost care and become aware of the potential hazards in gas freeing process. In this context, this paper provides a fuzzy DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) method to evaluate critical operational hazards in gas freeing process. While the DEMATEL method enables to identify and analyse the potential hazards of gas freeing process with respect to causal effect relation diagram, fuzzy sets deal with the uncertainty in decision-making and human judgements through the DEMATEL. Thus, the hybrid approach provides smart solution for safety practitioners to prevent critical hazards in gas freeing process. The results of the research will contribute to maritime safety at sea and prevention of environment pollution as well as loss of life on-board crude oil tankers ships. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    A fuzzy failure mode and effects approach to analyse concentrated inspection campaigns on board ships
    (Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2016) Akyüz, Emre; Akgun, Ilker; Celik, Metin
    Maritime actions against substandard operations of ships are a great deal of memorandum of understanding (MoUs) under regional basis agreements among port state control (PSC) organisations. Herein, concentrated inspection campaigns (CIC), performed by the different members of MoUs in certain periods, are a monitoring strategy to effectively control the core operational matters encountered in fire-safety systems, propulsion and auxiliary machinery system, lifesaving appliances, working conditions on board ships, etc. This paper proposes a quantified maritime safety analysis based on fuzzy failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to evaluate CIC database of MoUs in order to achieve advance creative solutions. Demonstration studies are performed on the special database on fire-safety system deficiencies. Since the fuzzy FMEA outcomes point out the risk prioritisation numbers and relevant control options, the paper attempts to transform CIC feedback into useful information in terms of enhancing the ship PSC inspection concept (e-PSC inspection). The paper theoretically contributes to safety analysis methods in literature while demonstration of e-PSC inspections offers an insight into maritime industry in safety improvement.
  • Öğe
    A modified human reliability analysis for cargo operation in single point mooring (SPM) off-shore units
    (Elsevier Sci Ltd, 2016) Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Erkan
    A Single Point Mooring (SPM) unit is a widely recognised off-shore terminal facility in the marine industry since a considerable amount of liquid cargoes can easily be transferred into huge tankers such as VLCCs or ULCCs. Although the system presents high safety standards, any minor accidents due to human error may cause serious harm to the marine environment, human life and the commodity itself. Therefore, nominated crew on-board the tanker and the unit should be very careful during SPM cargo operations. At this point, human reliability plays a critical role in avoiding potential operational or technical failures. In this context, the aim of this paper is to perform a comprehensive human reliability assessment during cargo operations of an SPM unit to enhance maritime safety in off-shore units. The paper prompts a methodological extension of human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART) by incorporating interval type-2 fuzzy sets which overcome more of the uncertainty of experts' judgement and expression in decision-making. The proposed approach not only provides theoretical insight but practical contribution to human reliability assessment in the marine and off-shore industries. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    Quantitative human error assessment during abandon ship procedures in maritime transportation
    (Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2016) Akyüz, Emre
    Human error prediction is always onerous work in the maritime domain since it is very difficult to obtain empirical data. One accepted method, Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM), is utilized to assess human error as data is very scarce in the marine industry. The SLIM provides a quick tool to predict human error and evaluate human error probability (HEP) that occurs during the completion of a specific task. The weakness of the method is the subjectivity in the process of experts' judgments causing difficulties in ensuring consistency. To remedy this gap, this paper proposes a fuzzy based SLIM technique which provides more accurate estimation during human error quantification. In the proposed approach, while the SLIM is utilized to estimate HEP, the fuzzy sets deal with the vagueness of expert judgments and expression in decision-making during the weighting process of performance shaping factors (PSF). To illustrate the proposed approach, the abandon ship procedure in marine transportation has been selected since the evacuation of the ship is critical to prevent the loss of life in the case of emergency. The outcomes of the paper can be utilized by ship owners, safety managers as well as ship management companies to minimize the likelihood of human error occurring within a specific task and to enhance overall levels of safety on-board a ship in the marine environment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    A phase of comprehensive research to determine marine-specific EPC values in human error assessment and reduction technique
    (Elsevier Science Bv, 2016) Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk
    Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) is a well-known approach for performing critical operations in safety analysis. It has various applications in many different disciplines such as nuclear energy, railway transportation, aviation and healthcare services. In addition to identifying human error categories, determining and weighting of error-producing conditions (EPCs) is the key aspect of human reliability quantification. Although EPC values are defined specifically for some disciplines, for the maritime industry these values have not been derived yet in terms of ship operational management. The aim of this paper is to produce marine specific EPC values (m-EPCs) in accordance with an advanced methodological framework, including accident causation, weighting, decision-making consensus, and statistical validation. For these purposes, a multi-dimensional approach involving Majority Rule, HEART, HFACS, AHP, and validation techniques has been utilised. Finally, a comparison between existing EPC values (i.e. for the nuclear industry) and m-EPCs is also provided to clarify industrial safety perspectives. Furthermore, this research encourages maritime safety professionals and practitioners to perform human error predictions for various critical shipboard operations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    A hybrid human error probability determination approach: The case of cargo loading operation in oil/chemical tanker ship
    (Elsevier Sci Ltd, 2016) Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Metin
    HEART (human error assessment and reduction technique) is widely recognized a robust empirical tool in determination of HEP (human error probability) since prediction of human error is of paramount importance in marine industry (Williams, 1988). The method is successfully applied to a variety of domains such as aviation, railway, petrochemical, nuclear power plants, etc. The method has two fundamental parameters; generic error probability (GEP) and error-producing conditions (EPCs). The EPCs are the factors that affect the human performance negatively. The paper deals in principle with one of the methods used for human error probabilities estimation and it suggests its enhancement using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty, 1980). Thus, quantification of the subjective judgements of experts during assessed proportion of affect (APOA) calculation is achieved in the course of HEP. To demonstrate the proposed approach, cargo loading operation in oil/chemical tanker ship is selected since the process is very critical to prevent loss of life and marine environment pollution. Consequently, besides its theoretical insight, the paper has practical outcomes to safety practitioners and maritime professionals for estimation of HEP in a specific task. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    APPLICATION OF INTERVAL TYPE-2 FUZZY SETS DEMATEL METHODS IN MARITIME TRANSPORTATION: THE CASE OF SHIP COLLISION
    (Royal Inst Naval Architects, 2016) Celik, E.; Akyüz, Emre
    Accident analyse in marine industry is one of the critical issues for safety practitioners to prevent loss of life. Although considerable efforts were undertaken to prevent marine accident, numerous researches revealed that marine accidents are still on-going. In order to minimize accidents in the marine transportation, this paper presents a proactive decision making tool which is integrating Decision-Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method with interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs). As the DEMATEL enables to analyse cause and effect relationship in decision-making, the IT2FSs overcome ambiguity and vagueness of linguistic assessment of decision-makers through the DEMATEL. Thus, significant accident causal factors and their effects can be analysed on the basis of cause-effect diagram. The application of proposed approach is demonstrated with a real ship collision case. Beside its theoretical contribution, the proposed approach provides practical benefits to ship owners and operators to perceive cause and effect relationship and to avoid marine accident.
  • Öğe
    A hybrid risk-based approach for maritime applications: The case of ballast tank maintenance
    (Taylor & Francis Inc, 2017) Gul, Muhammet; Celik, Erkan; Akyüz, Emre
    Risk assessment is vital for cost-effective ship management in maritime industry since numerous maritime activities pose potential hazards according to the human causalities. Therefore, safety practitioners attempt to offer proactive approaches to mitigate risk as much as possible. In this context, this article presents a hybrid risk-based approach for maritime industry by adopting Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with fuzzy VIKOR (FVIKOR) methods under Fine-Kinney approach. To illustrate the hybrid risk-based approach, ballast tank maintenance process is handled since there are various hazards causing fatalities, severe injuries, and illness during ballast tank maintenance procedure than any other type of shipboard work. An extensive risk analysis is performed to enhance environment safety and operational reliability in maritime industry. Besides its theoretical contribution, the outcomes of the paper contribute to improve overall safety level of ship by considering potential hazards in risk management.
  • Öğe
    Market segmentation in container shipping services: a qualitative study
    (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2017) Balcı, Gökçay; Cetin, Ismail Bilge
    Purpose - Container shipping is a standardized business-to-business service market where carriers need to stay customer focused to survive. Market segmentation is an ideal solution to develop customized marketing programs for each segment, but container lines need personalized marketing programs for each customer. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a segmentation framework that can help container lines to profile each customer more efficiently considering their needs, strategic importance and demographics. Design/methodology/approach - This study has adopted an exploratory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers of container lines. Findings - Segmentation bases are the type of customer, container volume, loyalty, seasonality, decision maker, the industry of shipper, cargo characteristics, container type, destination region and export/import. Market segmentation in container shipping can be helpful in developing effective customized marketing offering, including effective price discrimination and customized marketing communications. Practical implications - A port-specific segmentation approach was adopted and a flexible segmentation framework was proposed for container lines to adapt in different hinterlands. Originality/value - Unlike the literature, this study suggests market segmentation can be very helpful in customized marketing in business-to-business services like container shipping industry. This study also suggests port-specific market segmentation for container lines instead of route-specific.
  • Öğe
    Establishing a central operation approval system in ship management companies based on a human reliability assessment model
    (Crc Press-Taylor & Francis Group, 2017) Soner, Omer; Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Metin
    This study aims at establishing a central approval mechanism in ship management companies to monitor the probable human errors along with the critical operations. The idea behind the paper is to control the dynamics of error producing conditions (EPC) parameters at shipboard platform. Since the human error reduction is a present great challenges of ship operator, the proposal concept has flexibility to cover the ship fleet in an advance user interfaces. The operation approval system is capable of increasing situation awareness in the probable causes leading to human errors. The proposed central operation approval system is an extension of the research project entitled "Human Reliability Analysis and Monitoring System Proposal in Shipboard Operations (H-RAMS)" (Project no: 114M352) supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Coucil of Turkey (TUBITAK).
  • Öğe
    Application of fuzzy FMEA to perform an extensive risk analysis in maritime transportation engineering
    (Royal Inst Naval Architects, 2017) Akyüz, Emre
    The nature of maritime transportation involves numerous hazards, which can lead to serious consequences for human life, marine environment and ship. Therefore, achieving a high level of safety is recognised as paramount in maritime industry (Akyuz, 2016). In order to achieve this purpose, this paper prompts a fuzzy based Failure Mode and Effects analysis (FMEA) to perform an extensive risk analysis in the maritime transportation industry. The method has capable of identifying potential failures and calculating risk priority number (RPN) by capturing nonlinear casual relationships between the failures. The proposed method is applied to hatch cover failures in operational aspects in bulk carrier ships since potential failures of hydraulic hatch covers have serious concerns for ship owners. Besides its theoretical insight, the paper has practical benefits to ship owners, superintendents as well as safety professionals by identifying potential failure and offering early corrective actions.
  • Öğe
    Application of AHP and VIKOR methods under interval type 2 fuzzy environment in maritime transportation
    (Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2017) Soner, Omer; Celik, Erkan; Akyüz, Emre
    The aim of this paper is to provide not only a hybrid theoretical methodology in multiple-attribute decision making problems but also a practical application in maritime transportation industry. The proposed hybrid approach integrates Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method into VlseKriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje, (VIKOR) technique under interval type-2 fuzzy (IT2F) environment. While AHP and VIKOR provides a comprehensive framework to solve multiple-attribute decision making (MADM) problems in maritime transportation industry, the IT2F enables to deal with much uncertainty during linguistic assessment of decision-makers. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a hatch cover design selection problem since it has utmost importance in structure of bulk carrier ships to prevent water ingress and protect cargo form the external damages. Besides its robust theoretical insight, the paper has practical contribution to the naval engineers, classification societies and ship owners who have difficulty in deciding appropriate hatch cover type during construction of the ship.
  • Öğe
    A marine accident analysing model to evaluate potential operational causes in cargo ships
    (Elsevier Science Bv, 2017) Akyüz, Emre
    This paper introduces a novel hybrid approach to assess potential operational contingencies in a real shipboard accident since safety at sea is of paramount significance in maritime transportation industry. The hybrid accident analisis model integrates an Analytical Network Process (ANP) method with Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). To achieve this purpose, the HFACS model provides a schematic conceptual framework to investigate and analyse role of human error in marine accident and the ANP method provides correlation among the factors for assessment. Thus, the most important factors that contribute to the accident are revealed respectively. The novelty of this paper is to present a different perspective during marine accident analysis in which priority weights of accident causes related to the human error are calculated by ANP model. The hybrid accident analysis model is established to enhance safety and prevent loss of life or injury in maritime transportation industry. The proposed hybrid approach is illustrated with a real-ship incident case: a serious liquefied petroleum gas leak from the gas carrier ship. In conclusion, the research is expected to encourage safety researchers and ship management companies to prevent similar accident occurrence. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    USING OF A'WOT TO DESIGN AN ENHANCED PLANNED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM (E-PMS) ON-BOARD SHIP
    (Brodarski Inst, 2017) Akyüz, Emre; Celik, Metin
    Repair and maintenance is a critical technical aspect on board ship. Poor maintenance planning may lead to serious impairment in safety, efficiency, and environmental performance since researches show that a significant breakdowns and damage to ships with maintenance system. This study investigates the potential of existing planned maintenance system (PMS), mainly adopted strategy on board ships, to point out the required improvements. The PMS is a comprehensive periodic maintenance system for equipment or machinery. It is formulated by the ship management company or ship owner associated with requirements of manufacturer and ship classification society. An A'WOT hybrid methodology is utilized to quantify the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of PMS. To develop an e-PMS concept, the proposed solutions are decided respectively. The e-PMS concept enables a considerable amount of contributions to ship system performance and reliability once it integrates into safety management system.