Frequency Estimation Methods for Smart Grid Systems

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Frequency is one of the most significant parameters in the smart grid systems. Thus, accurate frequency estimation becomes an essential task for monitoring, controlling and protecting a real-time smart grid system. In this chapter, we present an overview of the frequency estimation methods in the smart grid system with a focus on real-time adaptive estimation algorithms. Primarily, in Sects. 5.1 and 5.2, the importance of the frequency estimation in the smart grid systems and the challenges encountered in its real-time applications are introduced in detail. In Sect. 5.3, a three-phase power system is then formulated as a two-phase system in the complex domain by using the well-known Clarke’s transformation so as to be able to estimate the frequency of the smart grid system in the real time. For this purpose, the adaptive real-time frequency estimation algorithms are comparatively presented as strictly and widely linear algorithms in Sect. 5.4. The strictly linear algorithms yield optimal solutions only under balanced three-phase systems, whereas the widely linear algorithms give a better solution under both balanced and unbalanced conditions due to the fact that they take into account all statistical information of the system. Considering smart grid applications in real time, the mentioned properties of these algorithms under both balanced and unbalanced conditions are proven in Sect. 5.5.


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Adaptive frequency estimation, Smart grid, Strictly linear, Widely linear


Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems

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