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  • Öğe
    Aesthetics of invisibility in Iranian women's identity and their domestic space during the 1980s
    (Taylor and Francis, 2022) Golabi, Maryam
    This paper investigates the relationship between the gendered identities of Iranian women and their domestic space in the first post-revolutionary decade (1980s) at a time when the influence of Islamic tenets on people's lives was considerably higher than in the previous and subsequent decades. Contributing to feminist geography and providing an understanding of a regional reality, the aim of this article is to elaborate on how the redefined identities and bodies of Iranian women, which were considered central to the representation of the Islamic national identity in Iran during the 1980s, influenced the design and usage patterns of houses at that time. The paper adopts Pierre Bourdieu's conceptual framework related to 'social space' and 'physical space', conceptualizing a house (physical space) as a translated form of social space. The article proposes the concept of the 'aesthetics of invisibility' to comprehend the identity of Iranian women and the domestic space in the 1980s. It uncovers the connection between the invisibility of the female body and domestic space through critical readings of contemporary printed and visual media, and also a study of 30 houses built in Tabriz during the 1980s. The paper reveals that for both Iranian women's bodies and domestic space, their invisibility and seclusion from the public world are equated with aesthetics, which is often interwoven with morality in Iranian society. It shows that the redefinition of the identity of women, their appearance, and the codes of conduct and dress came with modifications to the street facades of houses, and the design, organization and use of interior spaces.
  • Öğe
    An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Everyday Life Rhythms and Urban Morphology: The Square Of Bursa Kent Meydani Shopping Center, Turkey
    (SAGE Publications Inc., 2022) Gümüş, İmran; Yılmaz, Ebru
    The aim of this study is to search for the relationship between the morphological character of urban space and the rhythms of everyday life. Initially, behavioral maps are created by observing daily life rhythms, video recordings are taken on weekend and weekday, the snapshot technique, video recordings, and the pedestrian count analysis are used. In the second step, morphological analyses of the study area are prepared by using space syntax approach. Connectivity, local, and global integration values are obtained through creating axial map, and, in addition, visibility graph analysis (VGA) is performed. Bursa Kent Meydani Shopping Center (BKMSC) consists of a square and the shopping units surrounding it. This area was the main transportation point as Central Bus Station Complex until 2006. The area was selected within the scope of the study because its changing public use due to the functional transformation of the area plays a significant role in the identity of the Bursa. The behavioral maps obtained from the observational data give information about user mobility, various actions, and the activities' locations on weekends and weekdays. By correlating and comparing behavioral and space syntax maps analyses, the relationship between the rhythmic character and the morphological structure of the urban space is tested. The study presents original data by revealing the effects of the morphological elements of Bursa on the daily rhythms of the square of BKMSC. The case study is limited to the surveys conducted in 2 days and three different times of the day. The relationship between observational data and space syntax data shows that daily life rhythms are not independent of the morphological factors.
  • Öğe
    On the sustainability of the national architecture movement mosque typology: Architect Kemalettin's Mosques
    (Peter Lang AG, 2020) Islamoğlu, Özge; Aras, Aylin
    The National Architecture Movement is a style that took shape with the Turkish movement that developed under the influence of nationalist thought in the West in the 19th century, and was born as a reaction to the late Ottoman architecture that was under the influence of the West at that time. This style aimed to refine our understanding of architecture and with these principles it left traces in today's Turkish towns. Kemalettin, the architect, (1870-1927) who was one of the pioneers of the movement, designed many buildings that reflect the first national architecture period. Mosque structures were especially in the foreground among the structures that were built within the style of the period. These structures represent private areas that reflect the social, cultural and economic structure; lifestyle and philosophy of the periods they belong to; urban memory; and are important witnesses of past cultures and periods. Sustainability of these structures should be ensured by protecting them with their unique plan schemes, decorations and construction techniques. In this context, the study includes the architectural analysis of the mosques designed by Architect Kemalettin Bey, who is one of the pioneers of the First National Architecture style, with his unique characteristic structure. The aim of the study is to read the national architectural movement mosque typology through the Architect Kemalettin's mosques and to contribute to the documenting, preservation and thus the sustainability of the mosque typology, which has its own characteristics. Depending on the fact that Kemalettin Bey was the pioneer of the period, the mosques under study are thought to have the quality to give information about the period.
  • Öğe
    A new solution proposal for pedestrian-vehicle traffic: Uzun street sample in Turkey
    (Peter Lang AG, 2019) Aras, Aylin; Aras, Egemen
    This chapter was made in order to propose a solution to ease the traffic flow of Uzun Street where the pedestrian and motor vehicle traffic is dense. In the scope of the study, a structural walking platform at the levels of the second floors of the buildings lined up along the axis of Uzun Street will be built. Motor vehicle traffic will be made possible under the platform and passages to the side streets will be built. Thus, both the pedestrian density of the street will be eased and the second-floors will be used as stores.
  • Öğe
    Bypass in urban space: creative scenarios
    (Kauno Technologijos Universitetas, 2021) Sarı, Tüba; Aras, Aylin; Yılmaz S.Z.
    Considering functional and experiential congestion in Kadıköy, the paper deals with the concept of “Bypass in Urban Space” in the context of the user-centred design. The case study is limited with the axis extending from Söğütlüçeşme and General Asım Gündüz Street which is connected to the main artery. Kadıköy, as one of the rapidly growing and transforming urban centres in Istanbul, reflects variable traumas in terms of human-environment behaviour relationships. A research model is developed to identify these traumas and produce a solution through bypassing the congestion in the area. Within the scope of the study, it is aimed to contribute to the dynamic structure of the city by creating new functional experience spaces in the capillary streets. On the other hand, it is aimed to design the spaces that lead the user to stop and perceive the environment beyond its transition function of the main artery within the dense pedestrian and vehicle traffic. By the research model, it is suggested multi-functional creative scenarios through the problems and hypotheses identified within the framework of the user-environment connection. Environmental and behavioural research, conceptual readings, sketch of ideas and visualization of conceptual studies, the designer scenarios are the main phases of the research as well as developing a proposal within the scope of contribution to the field. Most of design solutions analyses several dynamics such as bypass, main artery, in-between space, spatial conjunction, integration in urban space. So, it is aimed to design integrative mobile spaces for continuity of user-environment relationship beyond establishing a physical and visual connection.
  • Öğe
    Impact of spatial configuration to spatial quality: Venice and istanbul
    (VGTU, 2021) Gümüş, İmran; Erdönmez, E.
    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between spatial configuration and spatial quality, and how they affect each other. Spatial quality is a sophisticated concept and encompasses physical, social, economic, cultural and environmental components. Urban squares reflect these parameters and also play a decisive role in urban identity as areas of apparent urban culture and collective memory. Spatial configuration also determines the character of the squares as a result of morphological feature of cities. In the study, qualitative and quantitative methods are used together. Initially, the case study was conducted on two pier squares, San Marco Square (Venice) and Beşiktaş Square (Istanbul) according to fifty public space quality parameters. Secondly, morphological analysis was performed through space syntax method. It has been investigated whether there is a connection between spatial configuration and the factors determining the quality of space or not. As a result, it has been revealed that the spatial configuration is one of the determining factors being assessed the quality of the space, however, it does not provide sufficient data alone. The importance of this article is that it proposes an analytical approach that includes both quantitative and qualitative components of spatial quality.
  • Öğe
    (2018) Gönül, Alper; Durak, Selen
    XIV. yüzyılda Osmanlılar tarafından fethedilen Üsküp, Balkanlardaki stratejik konumu sayesinde Osmanlı İmparatorluğu için önemini her zaman sürdürmüştür. Üsküp, Osmanlı öncesinde kale içerisinde küçük bir kent görünümünde iken Osmanlılar ile birlikte kale dışında Doğu-Batı doğrultusunda inşa edilen yapı kompleksleri (imaretler) ve bu yapı komplekslerinin etrafında gelişen konut birimleri (mahalleler) ile büyük bir gelişme göstermiştir. XV. ve XVI. yüzyıllarda yoğun bir imar faaliyetine sahne olan Üsküp, XVII. ve XVIII. yüzyıllarda mimari gelişim bağlamında durağan bir dönem geçirmiştir. XIX. yüzyıl Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Tanzimat Fermanı’nın kabulüne ve Batılılaşma hareketlerine bağlı olarak radikal değişimlerin yaşandığı bir süreç olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. XIX. yüzyılda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda yaşanan bu değişim önemli bir Osmanlı vilayeti olan Üsküp’te (II. Abdülhamid’in Üsküp’e verdiği öneme de bağlı olarak) kent mekânına ve yapılara yansımıştır. Bu çalışmada amaç Tanzimat sonrasında kent yönetim örgütlerinin kurulmaya başladığı Osmanlı kentlerinden biri olan Üsküp’te XIX. yüzyıl ortalarından XX. yüzyıl başlarına kadar gerçekleşen fiziksel değişimleri; Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun son dönem siyasal, sosyal ve ekonomik gelişmeleri ışığında incelemektir. Söz konusu hedef doğrultusunda çalışmanın ilk kısmında XIX. yüzyılda Tanzimat sonrasında Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun içerisinde bulunduğu değişim ve Batılılaşma ortamı aktarılacaktır. Üsküp’ün XIX. yüzyılda geçirdiği fiziksel değişimin daha net bir şekilde okunabilmesi için değişim öncesi Üsküp’ün genel durumu harita üzerinde verilmiş; sonrasında ise siyasal, sosyal ve ekonomik nedenlere bağlı olarak gerçekleşen mekânsal değişimler ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmada erken Osmanlı döneminde oluşturulmuş ve Tanzimat dönemine kadar küçük değişikliklerle ulaşmış kent yapısına kısaca değinilmiş; ancak Tanzimat reformları ile ortaya çıkan mimari ürünlere odaklanılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise Tanzimat sonrası gerçekleşen mekânsal değişimler 1914 yılı Üsküp haritası üzerinde gösterilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır.
  • Öğe
    From borders to boundaries: Istanbul Land Walls
    (2018) Öksüz, Elif Belkıs; Sarı, Tüba
    The city is a whole with its local, cultural, social dynamics, and built environment. From economics to socio-political, and contextual relations, it contains different kinds of topological relations. In time, these relations become hybrid layers in different ways; and play a decisive role in the change and transformation of the urban context. Therefore, the ‘palimpsest’ is an important notion that reveals the causalities and the relations behind the transformation of an urban context; and a palimpsest urban reading helps us to recognize and understand the dynamic relations of urban transformation by making an inquiry for the physical and con- textual values. Through its layers, an urban palimpsest reading makes it possible to observe these characteristic changes and actors involved in changes. Extending from The Golden Horn to The Marmara Sea, Istanbul Land Walls can be regarded as one of the distinct examples of the urban palimpsest. Since its construction, Istanbul Land Walls have been functioned differently from time to time; and played a critical role in macro-scale and mezzo-scale changes in the urban context. Today, besides showing the patterns of previous civilizations, these buildings also show the traces of a contextual transformation, a transformation from being borders to becoming boundaries. The study discusses the land walls and their impact on the hybridization of the urban context through a historic research, current observation, and photographs in the direction of Topkapı-Yedikule Gates.
  • Öğe
    Spatial morphology of rebel cities: The cases of Madrid, Merida and Istanbul
    (Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, 2015) Vurucular Kesimci, Erhan; Ciravoğlu, A.
    The year 2011 went down in history as the year in which urban movements spread worldwide. The movements which found root in some countries before 2011 resulted in the revolution in Tunisia which became a bellwether. Following Tunisia, urban movements were then witnessed in Arab world countries such as Egypt, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Morocco and Bahrain, to be referred to as the 'Arab Spring' which was followed by 'Indignados' and 'Occupy', respectively. As for the urban movements in Turkey, the 'Gezi Park' incidents of June 2013 have common points with the movements that spread over the whole world. In this study, the spatial morphology of Rebel Cities, as defined by David Harvey (2013), was analysed. The aim of the study is to reveal the potential relations between urban movements and spatial morphology. For this purpose, the starting process, development and results of urban movements were initially analysed. It is known that governments, the present-day urban perception, viewpoints regarding urban rights and the commodifying of cities are the major causes of these movements. Research demonstrates that the Internet and social media, as communication methods of our age, have played a leading role in urban movements (Castells, 2013). Alternatively, the view that 'place' has an impact on the interaction of city dwellers, their coming together; thus, the emergence of urban movements is a view that is proposed within the scope of this paper. In this paper, it is argued that experiencing face-to-face communication in public space has greater value and effectiveness than coming together on the Internet environment. The movement, which was triggered by gathering on social media, became visible in urban space. It also became greater and more permanent. This could be observed in the cases of Egypt, Spain, the USA, and even Turkey. The urban movements that either start in a low-income neighbourhood of a city or are triggered by incidents in a city centre without making a call for a movement on the Internet indicate the significance of urban spaces that make it possible to come together and interact. The hypothesis of our study is tested within the framework of the analyses and evaluations conducted in three different cities. According to this scope, with the 'Indignados' movement of Madrid, Spain, with 'Resist Gezi Park' in Istanbul, Turkey, and with the city of Merida, Spain, which did not participate in the countrywide movement, their spatial morphology has been analysed. The method used in the study is space syntax analysis which helps to reveal the social logic of space. Space syntax analysis was conducted in places where these movements were visible in urban space and in the main public space of the city where there was no movement. As a result of these analyses, it can be seen that the gathering spaces in cities where urban movements are observed had integrated values at local (micro-R3) and global (macro-Rn) scales, and that the axes connecting these spaces had the highest values. On the graphs, they are coloured in red and orange which represents integration. As for the city where no urban movement was observed, the most integrated spaces were not found to be of the quality and accessibility that would shelter a potential gathering of city dwellers. According to the findings of the study, one of the common points of the cities whose movements were anaysed is the presence of public spaces in those cities. The major factor that triggers urban movements is the quality and accessibility of public spaces (squares, streets, parks) where city dwellers may gather. These findings indicated that public spaces were significant as one of the major elements causing urban movements, enabling city dwellers to come together. This study reveals the importance of the potential of urban space to allow social encounters in terms of democracy.
  • Öğe
    The Development of High-rise Housing Image in Istanbul: Policies and Architectural-is(m)s
    (Yildiz Technical Univ, Fac Architecture, 2019) Sarı, Tüba; Dulgeroglu, Yurdanur
    In Istanbul, high-rise buildings, which are predominantly located on the axis of Sisli-Maslak, the central business area of the city, and which are mostly formed by business centers and hotels, have become dominant in housing typologies in recent years, creating different urban foci. Within the scope of the research, the different urban foci including Sisli-Maslak, Basaksehir-Beylikduzu, Kozyatagi-Atasehir, Maltepe-Kartal and Historical Peninsula-Walls districts are analyzed by virtue of vertical dense structuring rises in the residential architecture of Istanbul after 2000s. Thus, the attention should be paid to multi-centered development and disintegration of the high-rise housing structures in the Istanbul metropolitan area. The first hypothesis of the study argues that the multicentered development increases with the high-rise buildings are spread throughout the residential structures, which forces urban fabric to the transformation. Considering the limits and the scope of the research, it is aimed to that residential and mixed-use high-rise buildings in five different urban foci in Istanbul, which mainly focused on housing function, in the level of 2025 floors and over are analyzed and synthesized. In accordance with these criteria, the Trump Towers, G Plus, Andromeda Gold, Safi Espadon and the OnaltiDokuz Towers selected according to the Convenience Sampling method are representative examples of five different urban centers in Istanbul. The projects focused on the development of the high-rise housing image in Istanbul are examined in three different contexts such as architectural-aesthetic relations, architectural-urban relations and architectural-presentation relations. Another hypothesis based on the research aims to prove that development of an image-focused architecture with the rise of buildings displaying the search of differentiation, form and image characterizing the city, especially considering the existing construction rate of high-rise buildings in the residential area in recent years.
  • Öğe
    Consumption culture and furniture: An analysis of two Turkish housing spaces
    (Intellect Ltd, 2019) Aras, Aylin; Ozdemir, Ilkay Masat
    Today, with the influence of globalization, the diversity of consumer groups with different consumption habits has increased and producers have had to offer products to a much wider range of consumers. The changing consumption patterns of different groups have enabled identification of lifestyles, leading to products now being a status symbol and identity statement. Consumption, thus, emerges as a concept that is not only dependent on the basic needs of the individual but also on their social and cultural needs. While the concepts of culture and sub-culture, which are highly influential in individuals' preferences, emerge as an important factor in purchasing behaviours, by reflecting its user's social habits and cultural group to which they belong, furniture provides clues about the individual's consumption habits. The individual transfers their message and messages of the group to which they belong with the help of the furniture that they use to others and does this in the most powerful way, in their living space, which is the window to the outside world. Two housing spaces belonging to two different culture groups in the province of Trabzon that host several different cultural layers were selected as the study area. One of these sites hosts users from local cultural groups, and the other hosts users from the global cultural group. Within the scope of the study, furniture consumption habits of the houses belonging to local and global culture groups were questioned. It was found that users showed consumption habits of the culture to which they belong while purchasing furniture like they did for other products, and therefore, consumption habits of the culture influenced furniture purchasing behaviours too.
  • Öğe
    A Reading on Critical Regionalism in the Northern Aegean Residential Architecture: Analysis of Ancient Troy, Traditional Ayvacik Houses and SM House
    (Yildiz Technical Univ, Fac Architecture, 2020) Gümüş, İmran; Polatoglu, Cigdem
    This study aims to investigate how the concept of critical regionalism can be instrumentalized in deciphering architectural continuity. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the dialogue that SM House has established with its geography by employing the critical regionalism approach. The main objective is to use critical regionalism to analyze SM House compared to other housing typologies in its geographical region and to reveal the relationship between the modern house and traditional and ancient houses. Visual and syntactic analyses of SM House and other houses from different times, including the ancient and traditional periods, were carried out in order to examine the concept of architectural continuity in the Northern Aegean and to evaluate the claim that SM House is a representative of local modernism. The visual analysis included analyses of plans, facades, and photographs. This method of analysis has been used to interpret spatial relations, materials, and construction techniques. Justified permeability graphs (gamma analysis) were used in space syntax analyses and have contributed to interpreting the social and cultural effects of spatial relationships. Real relative asymmetry (RRA), integration, visual integration, depth, and compactness values were used to interpret the possibilities of spatial experience and socialization offered by the houses examined and to analyze the readability of spaces. The contextual continuity and local reference of megaron, traditional, and modern houses in the Northern Aegean have been deciphered through visual and syntactic analyses. This study interprets contextual continuity as the essence of critical regionalism. The basic principles used in this study for the instrumentalization of critical regionalism included the principles of "spatial experience'; "local form and material'; "tectonic form'; and "space-culture relationship" derived from interpretations of the current literature and Frampton's principles, together with the principle of "alienation" introduced by Tzonis & Lefaivre (1981). The five principles through which critical regionalism is interpreted are applied to the visual and syntactic analyses of houses corresponding to three different time-space periods. The critical regionalist approach uses the local materials in order to respond to aesthetic concerns and to maintain the mass balance of the building in addition to functional requirements. This approach transforms local architecture without breaking the relationship between the place and the building by enabling the implementation of new technological systems and materials together with contemporary principles. The courtyard, which was located in the entrance of the ancient house, served as the most social place of the house, while in the traditional house this function was taken on by the sofa, which was located at the entrance of the house and on the upper floor. The entrance of the house was used to socialize and gather in the ancient period, while sofas which were located on the upper floors in traditional houses functioned as closed spaces where occupants came together. In the ancient period, high-depth housing types were common in order to provide protection. The short edges of the houses were used as entrances. In SM House, which reflects the modern period, the entrance is accessed by opening a niche from the long edge of the residence as opposed to the short edge used in the ancient period. SM House offers a combination of the ancient courtyard and the traditional sofa. However, the sofa has been re-interpreted as a low-privacy space with direct access not only for residents but also for visitors. Here, the architect re-interpreted traditional and ancient codes using the principle of "alienation': These data show that the changing social order, cultural transformations, and technological developments are important factors in the transformation of local elements of residential architecture. The unusual use of the local material in the SM House and the effort to communicate with visitors in addition to the residents confirm that SM House is taking a contrary approach to the traditional dwelling, which does not prioritize communication. In order to avoid dangers, the traditional house included features such as small window openings and small dimensions opened to the outdoor space; these features continued in traditional houses out of privacy concerns. In SM House, rather than traditional cultural norms, the desire to establish a strong relationship with the landscape is prioritized. Furthermore, the technological facilities incorporated into the construction of the house have been designed as outward-oriented. This house, which a family of four will use as a holiday home, has concerns independent of the spatial priorities of traditional residents. The elements that organize the place are not cultural norms, but regional references such as landscape, climate, topography, and local construction techniques. The need for defense and protection in the ancient period, a desire for privacy in the traditional period, and a preference for spatial experiences in the modern period are the main factors that influence the form of the houses. Spatial priorities varied in the relationships established with place in the three different time periods, but continuity has prevailed in the organization of space. This continuity has been made possible by local construction techniques, local materials, and topography guiding the design process. Visual analyses have found that the houses built in the three different time periods in the Northern Aegean contain the most rational solutions for their periods; syntactic analyses have shown how local and non-local subjects change and re-define the use of space. Visual and syntactic analyses of houses represented in different time periods can guide the creation of new designs that are compatible with nature, neighborhood, and context when evaluated as data sets within the critical regionalist approach. This study has shown that critical regionalism can be transformed into a method that contains data which can be integrated into the architectural design process, beyond the principles that allow for the construction of buildings to be evaluated after the construction process has been completed. The original contribution of the study to the current literature is an attempt to transform the critical regionalism approach into an analytical method through the analysis of houses built in three different time periods in the Northern Aegean. The rationale behind this method is to reveal the potential of critical regionalism as part of the design process beyond the principles of evaluation after the evaluation after the construction process.
  • Öğe
    Experimental and Numerical Shortest Route Optimization in Generating a Design Template for a Recreation Area in Kadifekale
    (Springer International Publishing Ag, 2020) Kokturk, Gulden; Tokuc, Ayca; Altun, T. Didem; Kale, İrem; Ozkaban, F. Feyzal; Cakir, Ozge Andic
    As cities grow, their complexity and the complexity of their infrastructure for various applications increase. Especially, transportation design is usually a very cumbersome process in current urban development models, and it is becoming more complex. Traditional approaches are not always sufficient to solve such complex problems, therefore, design disciplines like architecture and urban design need new tools to optimize many parameters related to their design. An alternate way to solve this problem can be via finding shortest routes. In this context, this study aims to evaluate different shortest path algorithms within a methodological approach to urban transportation planning via either experimentation or mathematical modeling. Three methods; namely live slime mold plasmodium, Floyd-Warshall algorithm, and ant colony algorithm are used to design a template for routes within the historical Kadifekale district of Izmir, Turkey. The results from these approaches are compared, contrasted, and discussed in terms of their suitability for use as a guide for route creation. In conclusion, the parameters of an algorithm are significant on suggesting routes, thus the strengths and weaknesses of an algorithm should be carefully considered before application in a design problem.
  • Öğe
    Examination of Traditional Residences in Bitlis on the Zeydan District Scale in the Context of Space Syntax Analysis Techniques
    (Sage Publications Inc, 2020) Şen, Ender; Baran, Mine
    Spatial and spatio-visual analysis are space syntax analysis techniques that examine spatial configuration with graphs and numeric data. This study is based on spatial and spatio-visual analyses of traditional residences and comparison of these analyses. The historically and strategically important city of Bitlis in eastern Turkey was chosen as the study area. The most important structures that constitute the historical urban fabric within this protected area are the traditional residences in Bitlis. The spatial integration values obtained by the accessibility graphs and the visual integration values obtained by the visibility graphs are compared in 15 traditional residences plans using space syntax analysis techniques. For "accessibility" graphs, "Agraph" software and for "visibility" graphs, "Depthmap" software were used. Both programs are based on the theoretical and conceptual basis of space syntax analysis techniques. This research is important in terms of interpreting the existence of social and cultural information as well as environmental factors behind the space configuration of Bitlis traditional residences by examining them using scientific data.