Properties of Pine Bark Tannin-based Adhesive Produced with Various Hardeners
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Tannin-based adhesives are alternative bio-based products that can be used in the wood panel industry instead of synthetic adhesives that contain formaldehyde. For the production of these adhesives, formaldehyde is utilized generally as a hardener as in its synthetic counterparts. In this study, adhesive formulations were prepared using eight different hardeners and tannin powder from Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia) barks. While the shortest gel time values in the adhesive formulations were identified in the samples prepared with formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde, the longest gel time was obtained in the formulation prepared with tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane. As a result of the dry bonding tests, the values closest to the commercial UF adhesive were found in descending order as paraformaldehyde, formaldehyde, hexamine glyoxal, and poly[(phenyl isocyanate)-co-formaldehyde] (pMDI). According to the wet bonding strength test results, the adhesive samples in which furfural, tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, and benzaldehyde were used as hardeners did not achieve wet bonding strength. As a result of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), commercial UF adhesive samples had dramatically lower thermal stability than all of the formulations prepared with tannin. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectral analysis revealed that new chemical bonds were established between the tannin and hardeners.