Design of Adhesive-free Bio-based Suspended Ceiling Tiles Using Nanocellulose
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An adhesive-free, bio-based suspended ceiling tile (nanocellulose ceiling tile (NCT)) with mildew and mold resistance, fire retardancy, and water repellence was developed and compared with commercial products (M257, M266, and M935). The NCT produced the greatest contact angle values: 145.0 degrees (1.37% coefficient of variation (CV)) on the top surface, 137.8 degrees (2.15% CV) on the bottom surface, and 142.2 degrees (3.41% CV) on the edges. The thermal resistivity (R-value) of the NCT was also greater (3.14 degrees F.ft(2).h/BTU (1.32% CV)), so the thermal conductivity (k-value) was lower (0.046 W/(m.K)) than the compared commercial products (M257, M266, and M935). The NCT demonstrated resistance to mildew and mold growth, with zero defacement. Each product (NCT, M257, M266, and M935) evaluated was fire retardant, with zero horizontal flame propagation. The results showed that the NCT was an advanced ceiling tile prototype treated against fire, water, and mildew and mold growth throughout its thickness, with promising results compared to current ceiling tiles on the market.