Synergistic effect of biomass-derived carbon and conducting polymer coatings on the supercapacitive energy storage performance of TiO2
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The application of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is an abundant and cost effective resource, in supercapacitors has been restricted due to its poor electronic conductivity and limited mechanical stability. A biomass-derived carbon was coated on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles via practical and green hydrothermal carbonization in order to overcome these limitations. Hierarchically porous carbon provided a capacitive double layer for charge storage and the TiO2/C nanocomposite exhibited a specific capacitance of 61 F x g(-1) (0.25 A x g(-1), 0 to 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte). The TiO2/C/PEDOTTSS nanocomposite with enhanced specific capacitance and rate capability (189 F x g(-1) at 0.25 A x g(-1), 161 F x g(-1) at 0.5 A x g(-1), 123 F x g(-1) at 1 A x g(-1), 91 F x g(-1) at 2 A x g(-1)) was obtained by the application of an electrochemically active PEDOT:PSS layer. The prominent electrochemical and mechanical stability of the ternary nanocomposite was demonstrated by its ability to retain 98 % of its initial capacitance after 1500 cycles of charge-discharge at a high current rate (3 A x g(-1)). The synergistic use of sustainable organic and inorganic components with environmentally friendly and practical methods yields extremely promising electrochemical performances for supercapacitor applications. The TiO2/C/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite presented in this work delivered an electrochemical performance comparable to its published counterparts which are obtained by more sophisticated or hazardous methods and with expensive components.