An environmental risk assessment for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey: soil vs. plant or human vs. animal
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This study is the first research attempt to assess the environmental risks of an agricultural area contaminated with the p,p′-DDT and its metabolites (DDX) on human and terrestrial species through exposure to soil and agricultural products, simultaneously. The study was carried out for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey. Soil samples obtained in two different harvest applications were analyzed in terms of DDX levels. Similarly, stem, leaf, and fruit samples of an agricultural product grown on the same soils were analyzed. Using the results of these analyses, DDX intake values were calculated for 5 different human receptor groups, 4 different bird species, and 4 different mammal species, and the risk values were calculated by using a stochastic approach based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Findings indicated a substantial level of carcinogenic risk in the human receptor groups. Furthermore, a significant risk of reproductive toxicity was determined for the birds and mammals. The findings prominently showed that these risks can develop not only through exposure to DDX-contaminated soils but also through the consumption of plants grown on these soils.